How much can a handyman make


The homeowner pays the workers, contractors and suppliers directly. A property maintenance company or handyman will typically charge by the hour, rather than have a specific rate for certain jobs. If you're doing handyman jobs or service work and running into clients who don't want to pay because the bill is too high, change to upfront pricing. The average cost for a Handyman is $50. If you live in the state of Florida, you do not need a handyman license, but you do need a business license, or a contractor’s license if you are going to perform certain types of work involving construction, plumbing or wiring. How much does a Handy Man make in North Carolina? The average salary for a Company Logo. Tip #1: Just do a Google search on “How to get a business license in [your state here]” and you’ll find exactly what you need. The average cost for hiring a handyman varies by experience, project scope and time. In some places, a handyman earns more than $100 an hour and doesn’t expect a tip. This way, you won’t have to worry about disputes when it comes time to pay. Q: I’m an experienced in the home improvement line of work trying to find what I’m limited to as a handyman. 3: Painting Windows, Doors & Fences. The middle half had average pay between $33,790 and $56,120 per year. Handyman Int'l. You can earn more than that with a little creativity. The average hourly pay for a Handyman in United Kingdom is £10. We are pleased to offer you handyman rates you can clearly understand and count on. But consider spending $100 or more. In fact, most handymen I consult with directly end up making at least $100 per hour on  Feb 19, 2016 MarketWatch: So how much are you making these days? Schrier: I have a pretty You will need the flash plugin installed to view this video. Make up to $22/hour/job as a cleaner or $45/hour/job as a handyman. Painting is another easy way to make money as a handyman, you can even go door to door if you see something that requires painting at a particular property. In your answer to him, you said, "Some areas severely limit the handyman's ability to do certain types of 'protected' crafts such as plumbing and electrical work. Without these, the handyman is subject to six months in jail and can be fined up to $5,000. Painting. A high school diploma and technical training are usually the only requirements for a handyman job. Had a hole drilled in my granite countertop and paid the guy $50. Dive in with me as I explore some of the hidden jewels in the handyman business. But there is much more to this statute. . Any selfemployed "handyman" working by himself, or even with a small crew, will end up only making enough to "eke" out a living anywhere. General Construction Work. May 1, 2018 A handyman can make a number of small repairs all at once, saving you Unfortunately, left unchecked, many small home repairs can turn  If you have a well-rounded knowledge of how to fix things, starting a business as a handyman can provide you with a great business opportunity and a chance to  May 11, 2019 How much does a Handyman make in New York City, NY? The average salary for a Handyman is $54,569 in New York City, NY. Q: How much can a handyman make a year? 71% - If a single person makes about 29000 00 a year and make 854 00 once a month how much would you have to pay in o income tax at the end of the year? 71% - If i make 50000 per year and my childcare cost is 12000 per year how much is my take home? How much money you can make before having to file federal taxes depends on a variety of issues beyond just the amount of your adjusted gross income for the year. In fact, in this tip you are not even capped at $100 an hour. HomeAdvisor's Handyman Cost Guide offers price information on hiring a professional handyman, How much you pay your handyman will depend on several factors: . Bristol-based Steve Biggs from SDB Building and Maintenance told us he typically charges £25 per hour for handyman work, or £120 per day for decorating. It varies by state, but in SC a handyman can make up to $1,000 with out having a license, but anything over that will require a license for liability purposes. However, they can take 1/3 of the price plus money for materials. Visit PayScale to research handyman hourly pay by city, experience, skill, employer and  Visit PayScale to research handyman hourly pay by city, experience, skill, employer An entry-level Handyman with less than 5 years of experience can expect to earn an average total compensation of $37,000 Learn as much as you can. Research and preparation can help lower costs and make sure your handyman's time is put to best use. The lowest 10 percent averaged less than $26,810 annually. Drywall repair. Some you might hire a general handyman to handle, allowing you more time with your family or your hobbies. Make a handyman invoice just like this with Invoicely! It’s best to create an itemized list of the services and products you’re charging clients for. Paying a handyman $80. Most handymen take smaller jobs and charge much less than larger contracting businesses. Some you feel comfortable tackling yourself with DIY tools and YouTube videos. A handyman who works independently will usually charge around $60 to $65 an hour on average. Some low-cost advertising to get started can include a basic 1 or 2 page website, setting up a free business listing on Google and other online directories, create some business profiles on social media, have PayScale places the average hourly rate for a handyman at around £10. are plus 25%. Read Here To Find Out What Kinds Of Jobs A Handyman Can Do For You And How Much It Will Cost. Ask to see every handyman's MHIC license and then check with MHIC to make sure the license is still current. We'll assume the handyman income is the full time, so you would need to make $35,000 a year, pre-tax, to be roughly in the middle of the road for earnings in America. Handyman Services; Blow In Insulation; Insulation Estimator; Handyman Tips! Rates; References; Photos; Contact TV Mounting Services | TaskRabbit Get Furniture Assembled Lift & shift heavy items Get a sparkling home Maintain outdoor spaces Make Home Improvements TaskRabbit uses its own and 3rd party cookies for improving your experience, marketing, and advertising on our site and other sites. Even if they are small projects, they can add up to a weekend of honey-do lists. Having a reliable and knowledgeable handyman only a phone call away can be a huge asset in property maintenance. I am opening a new Plumbing the business name is PalestineLLCPlumbingGaretts Handyman ServiceConstruction And ContractorsNexas and I live in Palestine, WV The consultant or coordinator doesn’t get paid more than the threshold ($500) from the homeowner, but might make a commission from the supplier or contractor. . Income. We have been serving commercial clients in Simi Valley California for many years and we always deliver excellent results. How much does a handyman cost? So how much will a handyman charge you? Most handymen charge by the hour, with costs ranging from $40 to $90 per hour. Try to purchase as much as possible before you begin. Kit and flatpack installation: These days, so much of our furniture is supplied in flatpack form  Dec 9, 2016 Bad work may have to be fixed: A handyman should make your life easier, how much it will cost, and what your payment schedule will be. It depends on where you live. Most states that require a handyman contractor's license will require you to take Create a business name. The price of a Handyman can vary depending on your area. 10 gals of Behr ultra would be $400. These rates are just average estimates, and will vary considerably by region and by individual worker. When hiring a handyman, make sure to consider the complexity of the job  May 20, 2006 Handyman Rates! hourly, daily or price a job, what best and how much to charge? thanks all. The cost of a handyman project can range from $75 to $5,000 or more, depending on the scope, but many handyman projects can be as low as $50 to $400, according to member reports. When a handyman is going to make more than $500, a contractors state board license is required. But, there is a right way and a wrong way to build your business and you’ll discover that the right way leads to a much higher profits for you. Yet Skilled Handyman, for example, charges £65 plus VAT an hour, and Handyman Hero’s services cost £50 for the first hour and £40 for any subsequent hours. Handymen earn median incomes of around $35,000 to $38,000 a year. This has to be one of the most So as far as I understand, a handyman should charge between $25-$75 per hour, and yes I realize that is a huge spread. Total Startup Cost: Under $100. 00 an hour to perform a dreaded task is a bargain. On average, homeowners tend to pay between $178 and $648. Oregon Handyman Licenses and Laws I’ve read through the contracting laws for the state of Oregon to find out what a handyman can do without getting a contractor’s license. Discover when it's best to DIY and when to find a handyman for the small stuff. Q: Would like to know how much is the price for handyman licenses? A: $39. Life as a Handyman This blog will follow my attempt to make a full time living as a handyman. Handymen often assist others with tasks that are too small for a major contractor to come in and fix, but too large for the homeowner to fix on his own. Check shipping periods to make sure you can get all the materials in time. Having a crew does not ensure that more work can be done. Many work for construction companies, apartment complexes and the government, while others are self-employed. Link them to the products online like grass seed, composting buckets, and a tool set, and you make $$$ from each product sold. How much does a handyman charge per hour? This question gets asked so many times. You may want to start here: How To Start A Handyman Business. If you're a married couple filing jointly and both over 65, you need a combined income of $21,300. If the value is less, or no building permits are needed, they can hire a handyman. How to Start a Handyman Business In Michigan. Making Money Online As a Handyman. SIMI VALLEY HANDYMAN CA can do all of this and so much more, offering you outstanding, fast and affordable commercial and business building repairs or handyman repairs. You will find that it isn’t difficult to become a handyman and you don’t need to have a lot of top quality tools. To hire a Handyman to complete your project, you are likely to spend between $40 and $50 total. This is the largest shed Family Handyman has ever created in the 60 years we’ve built sheds and shown how We’ve all experienced the same frustration when you’re in a jam and need help immediately. If you're a single filer under 65 in 2012, for example, you start paying taxes when your taxable income reaches $9,500. Handymen charge by the hour and in some cases will quote by the job. How much can you expect to earn as a self employed tradesperson? 3 Mistakes Almost Every Newly Self Employed Person Makes 3 Pitfalls New Self Employed Tradespeople Should Avoid I'm a Self Employed Tradesperson, Do I Need an Accountant? 3 Ways to Win More Referrals As a Self Employed Tradesperson After you start a handyman business, you need to market it. You'll never get rich being a handyman and you'll have lean times. To date, I have not found a single area of the US where a handyman can receive a license. Learn More! How to Be a Handyman. “ Fix my  I got started with very little experience and just learned as much as I could You can make more money on larger jobs simply because you are working for eight  The US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reports that handymen, as carpenters and laborers, usually get paid by the hour. It is not uncommon for professional handymen to charge a minimum fee for service. Amazing how much time you can spend waiting in a line with the clock ticking. That would make the cleaning part $120 max. This cost is for basic home improvement tasks and repairs. The problem is there are so many answers. My name is VonJamieeau Patski and my member number is 465780 company formation. Expanding your handyman business. S. PayScale places the average hourly rate for a handyman at around £10. There are some important steps to take to start a handyman business in the state of Michigan. A: You can obtain a business license for handyman subcontractor on our site. Not a bad margin at all. Some demand well over $100/hour because they know what they’re doing and do it efficiently, professionally, and immaculately. A: There are no limits to home improvement work by a handyman. Honest Lee Handyman 69,025 views What 5 types of repairs will make you money as a handyman? Here are my top 5 repairs that I find profitable. In the long run, you probably won't save that much money repainting your living Plus, most online outlets feature customer reviews, which can make it easy to s. 5 salaries. How much should you pay for handyman work? What would be a high estimate, what would be a low estimate for handyman work? What would these jobs cost in your area? Here are price estimates for many types of common handyman jobs. Andy OnCall - Handyman Services Handy Man. That works out to about $3,000 a month. And on the high end, some great workers will charge upwards of $80-$100 per Make sure your potential handyman understands the issues, and secure an  Our guide on starting a handyman business covers all the essential information to help you decide if this How much profit can a handyman business make? Handyman Service Prices - the cost of hiring a Handyman Service can vary depending include as much detail and information as you can when submitting the job. As a self-employed worker, you’ll also have more options for career progression. Ask for a copy of the handyman's current general liability insurance certificate. You can use Bluehost which costs just $3. It sounds to me like you and your handyman have way different goals. I have never paid anuthing over 50% nor will I. How Much Does a Handyman Cost? Make a list of everything that needs doing, because it's usually cheaper to have In some states handyman can work without a contractor's license as long as they   Jan 13, 2016 How much does it cost to hire a handyman? A handyman can be a useful person in many areas of the house. Dear NH, I am considering starting my own Handyman business, like one of your readers in the June, 2001 newsletter. Even then, you should pay by the job, not by the hour. It is important to us that you know exactly how much your home improvement project or repair will cost before we start working. Plan logistics. Further, one can try out a new handyman with easy projects such as  Dec 18, 2018 There's a lot that goes into how much a handyman job will cost you and a lot you can do on your end to mitigate your costs and make sure  What kind of work can a handyman do without a license? They won't let the unlicensed handyman break the job down into smaller components to make the  Mar 30, 2018 For contractors and handyman business owners, there are a couple of main You can charge an hourly rate or give customers an estimate for the project as can potentially make it easier for them to make a decision quickly. While being a skilled handyman is an important component to running a successful handyman business, so is having good business sense and planning. How much money can a solo lawn care business owner make? A lot of times a new lawn care business owner will be working solo and wondering what kind of income can they potentially make? How many lawns can the average solo lawn care business owner service? We’re the dumpster rental company Fairfax, VA homeowners and business people alike can count on, Handyman Cans puts your satisfaction first. Each year the IRS publishes the minimum income to file taxes that must be reached before you are required to file a federal tax return. Pay by State. Then, there are the guys on Craigslist charging a measly $10 per hour. It may be different in the area you work but I doubt it. For those with experience and skills in this area, opening a handyman business can be a lucrative option. They will charge on the higher end of the scale when they are highly skilled, carry liability insurance and present themselves well. How to Figure Out Your Hourly Rate. (If you know of an area, please let us know by adding feedback to this article. All of which can be purchased for well under $100 dollars. Independent workers usually charge around $60 to $65 per hour depending on the type of job and the location. Many handyman services employ several professionals that together offer a number of varied specialized skills. Making $100 or more per hour in the handyman business sounds like it could be a tall order, People working as a Handyman in your area are making on average $17 per hour or $1 (6%) less than the national average hourly salary of $18. He signed up to work for TaskRabbit, the online marketplace that allows users to outsource small jobs to others that, along with other odd-job service apps such as Handy and Fiverr, partnered with Amazon Home Services earlier this month to offer handyman services. Make sure you have all your state business license requirements. Why make a big deal out of it? Go find a licensed, insured, responsible contractor to do this for you instead. 28. Mr. Our employees are happy to serve you and will always greet you with a smile and cheerful attitude. Tip #2: Build a website for your business. Handyman Rates. A handyman can do much more than you might think they can. A handyman, also known as a fixer, handyperson or handyworker, is a person skilled at a wide . In PA there is the Home Improvement Consumer Protection Act of 2008 that states that a registered contractor can not take more than 1/3 ot the total price. Blimey £25 HR for handy man work can't be bad. This can increase if you need the handyman to carry out more extensive repairs. We work to make sure that you receive the service you need and respond to all inquiries in a timely manner. The purpose of this article is to discuss the issue of licensing and the handyman. After working as a self-employed handyman for at least a decade, your earnings could range between $24,242 and $48,929 per year. He works for TaskRabbit in San Francisco and charges $150 an hour. $30 Handyman Services Coupon! $100 Insulation Coupon! Custom Shop. Regardless of how much work there is available, one person can only do so much. While many states have a dollar limit of $1,000 on handyman jobs, there is no such limit in Florida. More complicated jobs tend to cost up to $80 per hour or more. For the last 50 years, our education system preached that becoming a knowledge worker would be the path to success. It is also London's Do you know someone who will make a perfect Silver Saints Handyman?. The hourly range for wealthier areas and specialty skilled handymen start anywhere from $90 per hr up to $400 per hr. Working as a handyman doesn’t sound like a lucrative business to most people. Mar 21, 2019 Women who are good at that job can make several thousand a week. rates can vary greatly, be sure to get written estimates from multiple handymen before making a final decision. These projects can include tasks like: Basic electrical work. At a minimum our handyman will be paying about $2,150 in combined annual premiums ($350 + $500 + $1,300). A 1bd/1ba should take no more than 6 hours if using a good degreaser. No, you can’t do structural work, like work on foundations, built new additions, or even make modifications to structural walls, but there is quite a bit you can do. You can’t expect to make money as a handyman without any customers. This is a huge opportunity. You can charge an hourly rate or give customers an estimate for the project as a whole. You may improve this article, discuss the issue on the talk page, or create a new article, as appropriate. You may check online or call 1-888-218-5925 (toll free) or 410-230-6231 (Baltimore area). You must do your own thorough research, as laws change regularly. Not to mention that the life of cheaper tools is much shorter, so you'll be  On a basic level, an unlicensed handyman in CA can perform a wide range of can offer many services as long as they are under $500, you must make sure  How much a handyman should cost. Expect to pay about $30-$50 an hour for an independent handyman in rural or less expensive areas and $40-$60 an hour in more urban locations or regions with a higher cost of living. 60. One day it might be a handyman to install much-needed shelves in your home office, or on another it A complete list of all your belongings can help you decide … The threat of a natural disaster shouldn’t be the impetus to create your home inventory. You are selling both your services to a client Average Cost of Handyman. However, after adding in worker’s compensation insurance and payroll taxes, you can expect to be paying $25 – $35/hr in total per worker. When you're a single dependent under 65, you pay if you earn $5,800 or receive $950 in unearned income such as dividends. These businesses often charge hourly rates closer to $75 to $150 per hour. also understood the importance of allowing individuals other than licensed contractors to make minor repairs. ) So the question becomes: How can I work legally as a handyman and still make a good living? Working as a handyman lets you experience the freedom of setting your own hours and rates. To have a licensed issued, the handyman must be finger printed, have an FBI background check and be bonded or insured. How much does it cost to hire a handyman? It can Research and preparation can help lower costs and make sure your handyman's time is put to best use. Our Handyman Rates are by the Job. So is this person acting, according to the law, Hello all, looking to set up into this line, just curious about what the average handyman in business charges, hourly, daily or price a job, what best and how much to charge? thanks all. Q: How Much Can A Handyman Make Per Job. Virginia ranks number 16 out of 50 states nationwide for Handyman salaries. A professional handyman hourly rate can be as much as $125 especially when a regulated skill is involved. Aug 24, 2018 Starting your very own business is a great way to make money out of what We can say that the handyman services fall into two general categories. They can't argue with the bill after the fact if they knew what it would be before you got started. Great Pay. Homeowners should expect to pay either by the hour or for an entire project, but never pay the entire balance owed before work begins. Make sure potential clients can tell that it is a handyman service from the name alone. If you are charging your customers around $50 – $75/hr, you can make about $25 – $40/hr for each worker at each site simultaneously. Make a list of what you need done and include some detail. How to make $100 an hour as a handyman How Much Does a Handyman Charge? Handyman services can charge an hourly or flat rate, depending on the project. Depending on where you live the actual price range can run from $55 to $75 for an independent operator. And on the high end, some great workers will charge upwards of $80-$100 per hour. While you might get quotes from handymen for ordinary jobs, when something extraordinary comes up, a handyman might be perfect for the job. So, in an attempt to answer the question within being even more confusing, I’d say a good, professional handyman will run you anywhere from $25 to $65 per hour depending on the job, how long it will take, and the skills needed to get it done. You can get a hammer drill for less than $50 that will do the job. Even a very small patio will require more than 50 holes, and a more powerful drill will make that chore a lot easier. Handyman Profit / Top 10 Most Profitable Handyman Jobs / JOBS THAT WILL MAKE YOU MONEY - Duration: 17:22. I can see why: The average maintenance and repair worker made about $37,000 in 2016, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Line up a contractor or, if you’re doing the work yourself, clear your schedule. I’m going to show you how you can make $100 or more per hour in the handyman business and start doing it tomorrow. For hourly projects, a typically handyman charges between $60-$90. 1 day ago · Build a fire pit for not much more than the cost of a flimsy store-bought fire ring. He may also want to get commercial auto since he transports sheetrock and large pieces of wood in the bed of his truck. The amount of money they make often depends on their experience, geographical areas and the size of their employers. 00 and it took in all of 5 minutesbut it he had the diamond drill that I didn't have I tried to rent one but that didn't work outIf you have the drill and add water to the hole ever 30 seconds or so it won't take very long but then you do run the risk of cracking the granitehave to decide how much is too much if you Sep 29, 2017 Want to earn money from your handyman services? No matter how high your rate is, you can only physically do so much work each week. Use the U. That said, I think an unlicensed handyman should get no more than $22/hr. What You’ll Need: Painting Materials. Within this blog, I will try to document my success and failures so that others who are considering this line of work can learn from both. A professional handyman can earn anywhere from $40 - $125 per hour. A handyman working on a door frame. For cleaning in LA, it should be no more than $17/hour. Plumbing. 49 $2. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message). A handyman I know quotes his rates over the telephone at $25 per hour,  Compare 227 Handyman Services in San Francisco Bay Area - 191000 Unbiased The best handyperson services have workers who can fix just about anything, have handyperson—and steps to take to make sure you don't pay too much. Flipboard: Top 10 Tips for Creating a Home Inventory The average hourly rate for handymen range from $40 to $80+ per hr. Try to find a name that has an available simple web address and isn't similar to other local businesses. We’ll assume the handyman revenue is the total time, so that you would need to make $35,000 a year, pre-tax, to be roughly in the midst of the highway for earnings in America. Find out if you’ll need to plumb the toilet or shower or if you can you use existing pipes. But first, let’s address a big issue – handyman hourly rates are all over the place. Have you ever felt powerless when faced with a vexing home repair problem? Were you left in awe by a handyman who capably did what needed to be done? You can be that awe-inspiring person. Example of Handyman Insurance Costs. Salaries  Silver Saints is London's premier professional handyman service. Be aware, you're going to burn through handymen pretty fast. This seems reasonable to me, as it is less that you'd pay for a plumber. Our top professionals make more than $1,000 a week. However, when taking on a handyman position, there are several key considerations to keep in mind, particularly when it comes to price points. Patent and Trademark Office's trademark search tool (or your country's equivalent) to make sure your name isn't identical or similar to an According to one September 2010 survey, handymen who have at least five years of experience in the field can expect to earn between $19,275 and $40,521 annually. How can I get a handyman license in Wisconsin? We take a look at what you can expect a handyman to do for you. I'd be delighted to make three or four hundred extra dollars a week by  Aug 27, 2018 Generally, anyone can call him/herself a handyman, but each issues, so it's hard to make broad generalizations about when you will need to get handyman and a contractor, you must determine how much you are willing  I only charge drive time if I have to make a trip for materials. But at the bottom end, anyone charging less than $20-$25 is probably not up to par as far as skills go. Visit PayScale to research handyman hourly pay by city, experience, skill, employer and more. Alternatively, go find a handyman who is gagging for work and willing to take $500 to paint a house. Calling A Handyman Can Be A Great Idea If You Have Those Jobs Around The House That Surpass Your Skill Set. I’ve seen ads on craigslist for handymen charging $15 a hour (which I think is ridiculous) and I’ve also seen handymen charging up to $100 an hour or more. The term handyman is rather general, and knowledge and skill will vary depending on the person. A general contractor, meanwhile, often has proven experience in construction. The use of a handyman invoice allows a business or freelance handyman service provider to keep track of all their services that they have performed for a span of time, which in turn helps them determine how much they have earned for that period and on which services they earn more. 95 per month and they give your domain name for FREE! Nowadays, you have to have a presence online. Accessibility & Safety. Oct 21, 2014 Handyman versus repairman while selling a home by a licensed contractor while repairs under $1,000 can be performed by an unlicensed handyman. For contractors and handyman business owners, there are a couple of main options when it comes to pricing your services. Is it possible to get started as a contractor without getting a contractor’s license? Find out how much work you can take on without a license. The average hourly pay for a Handyman at Self-Employed is $25. Relative to many states, Oregon is not a very handyman friendly state and has quite a few restrictions on what you can do without a license. The full time earner makes $35,000 and the part time earner makes $15,000. Build and Install Wheelchair Ramp on Front Sidewalk; Build Handrail for Garage Steps I am a licensed contractor who has specialized in handyman services for around 20 years so I know a little about this. But what if I told you how one handyman earns $3,000 per week? Would that make you reconsider this business? By the Hour. How much are you charging for your handyman service? Are you ready to take it to the next level and start having fun with your handyman business? Read on. How to make $100 an hour as a handyman. how much should a handyman cost? I've hired a handyman in Los Angeles at a price of $50/hour. Decorative Barn Door; Barn Wood Table; Barn Wood Wall; Breakfast Nook Booth; Triple Bunk Bed; Basement Bunk Bed; Custom Loft Bed; Services. It depends on the area you live in and on the job you need completed. and some items you can buy bulk, you make even more. So if you are good at landscaping, you can teach people how to make homemade mulch, reseed their lawn, or fix their mower. LLC has relationships with third-party sources which offer financing to cover the following: franchise fee, startup costs, equipment, inventory, accounts receivable, payroll. about handyman and contractor licensing requirements, and they can vary significantly from  In order to make this type of estimate you must be confident that you will make charging by the hour but putting a cap on how much I think the entire job will cost. You A handyman can make a number of repairs around a home or business, from floor installation and painting to resolving plumbing issues and more. A handyman who is part of a larger business can charge up to $125 an hour or more. They can also earn overtime, which  You can also go here to see how much it will cost to get started. But $1,000 doesn’t go as far as it used to, which is why the Legislature acted to increase the exemption to $1,500. If you have a well-rounded knowledge of how to fix things, starting a business as a handyman can provide you with a great business opportunity and a chance to help struggling homeowners finally get their homes in order. That's right, "person". how much can a handyman make

fc, 32, dw, gt, ji, vp, dv, iq, yx, kr, 1t, ug, vy, bz, gw, ie, ch, pc, va, ep, 0o, 0t, is, eg, us, te, jh, rf, be, 5m, q0,